@article {17652,
	title = {Diatom silica microparticles for sustained release and permeation enhancement following oral delivery of prednisone and mesalamine},
	journal = {Biomaterials},
	volume = {34},
	year = {2013},
	month = {2013-09-03 00:00:00},
	pages = {9210 - 9219},
	publisher = {Elsevier},
	abstract = {

Diatoms are porous silica-based materials obtained from single cell photosynthetic algae. Despite low\ cost, easy purification process, environmentally safe properties, and rapidly increasing potentials for\ medical applications, the cytotoxicity of diatoms and the effect on drug permeation of oral formulations\ have not been studied so far. Herein, we have evaluated the potential of diatom silica microparticles\ (DSMs) for the delivery of mesalamine and prednisone, which are two commonly prescribed drugs for\ gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of the morphological surface\ changes of Caco-2/HT-29 monolayers and the cell viability data in colon cancer cells (Caco-2, HT-29 and\ HCT-116) showed very low toxicity of diatoms at concentrations up to 1000 mg/mL. The mesalamine and\ prednisone release under simulated GI conditions indicated prolonged release of both drugs from the\ diatoms. Furthermore, drug permeation across Caco-2/HT-29 co-culture monolayers demonstrated that\ diatoms are capable to enhance the drug permeability. Overall, this study evaluated DSMs{\textquoteright} cytotoxicity in\ colon cancer cells and the effect of DSMs on drug permeability across Caco-2/HT-29 monolayers. Our\ results demonstrate that DSMs can be considered as a non-cytotoxic biomaterial with high potential to\ improve the mesalamine and prednisone bioavailability by sustaining the drug release and enhancing\ drug permeability.

}, keywords = {cytotoxicity, Diatom, Drug delivery, Mesalamine, porous silica, Prednisone}, doi = {10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.08.035}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142961213009836}, author = {Zhang, H. and Shahbazi, M. - A. and M{\"a}kil{\"a}, E. M. and Silva, T. H. and Reis, R. L. and Salonen, J. J. and Hirvonen, J. T. and Santos, H. A.} }

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