@article {18061,
	title = {Surface modification of silica-based marine sponge  bioceramics induce hydroxyapatite formation},
	journal = {Cryst. Growth Des},
	year = {2014},
	month = {2014-08-01 00:00:00},
	publisher = {American Chemical Society},
	abstract = {

Marine biomaterials are a new emerging area of research with significant applications.
Recently, researchers are dedicating considerable attention to marine-sponge biomaterials for
various applications. We have focused on the potential of biosilica from Petrosia ficidormis for
novel biomedical/industrial applications. A bioceramic structure from this sponge was obtained
after calcination at 750{\textordmasculine}C for 6 hours in a furnace. The morphological characteristics of the 3D
architecture were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro-computed
tomography revealing a highly porous and interconnected structure. The skeleton of Petrosia
ficidormis is a siliceous matrix composed of SiO2, which does not present inherent bioactivity.
Induction of bioactivity was attained by subjecting the bioceramics structure to an alkaline
treatment (KOH 2M) and acidic treatment (HCl 2M) for 1 and 3 hours. In vitro bioactivity of the
bioceramics structure was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF), after 7 and 14 days.
Observation of the structures by SEM, coupled with spectroscopic elemental analysis (EDS), has
shown that the surface morphology presented a calcium-phosphate CaP coating, similar to
hydroxyapatite (HA). The determination of the Ca/P ratio, together with the evaluation of the
characteristic peaks of HA by infra-red spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, have proven the
existence of HA. In vitro biological performance of the structures was evaluated using an
osteoblast cell line andthe acidic treatment has shown to be the most effective treatment. Cells
were seeded on the bioceramics structures and their morphology, viability and growth was
evaluated by SEM, MTS assay and DNA quantification, respectively, demonstrating that cells
are able to grow and colonize the bioceramic structures.

}, keywords = {hydroxyapatite, Marine Sponge, surface chemistry}, doi = {10.1021/cg500654u}, url = {http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/cg500654u}, author = {Barros, A. A. and Aroso, I. M. and Silva, T. H. and Mano, J. F. and Duarte, A. R. C. and Reis, R. L.} }

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