@article {18385,
	title = {Stem Cells from the adipose tissue as allogenic player in cartilage repair: in vivo performance},
	journal = {World Stem Cell Summi},
	year = {2014},
	month = {2014-12-03 00:00:00},
	address = {San Antonio, Texas, USA},
	abstract = {

Background Stem cell therapies have gained interest for cartilage repair, due their therapeutic and regenerative potential. Among diverse stem cell sources, adipose tissue seems very attractive as it fulfils demanding requirements: significant chondrogenic potential; high yield of regenerative cells can be obtained per gram of tissue; considerable amounts of tissue can be sourced as it constitutes a surgical waste, and ease of access is tremendously simple as compared to, for instance bone marrow. These cells are further attractive for cartilage repair, as they constitute a potential allogenic therapy. Regenerative cells from the adipose tissue have demonstrated to be immunoprivileged and, in this particular application, will be used in a tissue shortly exposed to immunological reactions, due to its avascular nature. Hypothesis Herein, stem cells from the adipose tissue, chondrogenically validated, are proposed as major player in a combined therapy system as a treatment for focal cartilage lesions, in an allogenic context. Cells are delivered to the cartilage lesion in a non-animal origin hydrogel that support their chondrogenic development. Research Regenerative cells from the adipose tissue were xeno-free cGMP manufactured and extensively characterized for their cell surface markers, stemness and chondrogenic differentiation potential, as well as validated for absence of microbial contamination and recommended bloodborne pathogens. Cells were further combined (10 million cells/mL) with a methacrylated gellan gum-based hydrogel (2\%w/V) and cultured in chondrogenic in vitro conditions to validate the system. Cartilage regeneration potential was tested by the use of a rabbit knee model. Mature New Zealand White rabbits were subjected to 4mm diameter cartilage lesion, and the cellular hydrogel was prepared in the operating room at room temperature, injected into the lesion site and instantly solidified using saline. A sub-group of animals was treated with microfracture technique (current standard of care), while others were left untreated. Regeneration was allowed for eight weeks, after which, cartilage explants were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for collagen type I and II, safranin-O staining, and evaluated according to O{\textquoteright}Driscoll and ICRS-II scoring systems. Observations The combined therapy system resulted in chondrogenic development proven by histological detection of extensive hyaline cartilage matrix deposition. Collagen type II was highly expressed, while low evidences of fibrocartilage markers (collagen I) were visible. By histological scoring evaluation of the regenerative outcomes, the combined therapy outperformed microfracture

}, keywords = {adipose derived stem cells, Cartilage Repair}, author = {Correia, C. and da Silva Morais, A. and Vilela, C. A. and Gertrudes, A. and Santos, T. C. and Oliveira, J. M. and Espregueira-Mendes, J. D. and Sousa, R. A. and Reis, R. L.} }

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