@inbook {18627,
	title = {Multiphasic, Multistructured and Hierarchical Strategies for Cartilage Regeneration},
	booktitle = {Engineering Mineralized and Load Bearing Tissues},
	volume = {881},
	year = {2015},
	month = {2015-11-13 00:00:00},
	pages = {143-160},
	publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
	organization = {Springer International Publishing},
	edition = {1},
	chapter = {9},
	abstract = {

Cartilage tissue is a complex nonlinear, viscoelastic, anisotropic, and multiphasic material with a very low coefficient of friction, which allows to withstand millions of cycles of joint loading over decades of wear. Upon damage, cartilage tissue has a low self-reparative capacity due to the lack of neural connections, vascularization, and a latent pool of stem/chondroprogenitor cells. Therefore, the healing of articular cartilage defects remains a significant clinical challenge, affecting millions of people worldwide. A plethora of biomaterials have been proposed to fabricate devices for cartilage regeneration, assuming a wide range of forms and structures, such as sponges, hydrogels, capsules, fibers, and microparticles. In common, the fabricated devices were designed taking in consideration that to fully achieve the regeneration of functional cartilage it is mandatory a well-orchestrated interplay of biomechanical properties, unique hierarchical structures, extracellular matrix (ECM), and bioactive factors. In fact, the main challenge in cartilage tissue engineering is to design an engineered device able to mimic the highly organized zonal architecture of articular cartilage, specifically its spatiomechanical properties and ECM composition, while inducing chondrogenesis, either by the proliferation of chondrocytes or by stimulating the chondrogenic differentiation \ of stem/chondro-progenitor cells. In this chapter we present the recent advances in the development of innovative and complex biomaterials that fulfill the required structural key elements for cartilage regeneration. In particular, multiphasic, multiscale, multilayered, and hierarchical strategies composed by single or multiple biomaterials combined in a welldefined structure will be addressed. Those strategies include biomimetic scaffolds mimicking the structure of articular cartilage or engineered scaffolds as models of research to fully understand the biological mechanisms that influence the regeneration of cartilage tissue.

}, keywords = {Cartilage regeneration, chondrogenesis, hierarchical scaffolds, multiphasic scaffolds, Stem cells, Tissue engineering}, isbn = {978-3-319-22345-2}, issn = {0065-2598}, doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-22345-2}, url = {http://www.springer.com/us/book/9783319223445}, author = {Correia, C. R. and Reis, R. L. and Mano, J. F.}, editor = {Bertassoni, L. E. and Coelho, P. G.} }

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