@inbook {18848,
	title = {Pre-clinical and Clinical Management of Osteochondral Lesions},
	booktitle = {Regenerative Strategies for the Treatment of Knee Joint Disabilities, Studies in Mechanobiology, Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials},
	volume = {21},
	year = {2016},
	month = {2016-10-04 00:00:00},
	publisher = {Springer International Publishing AG},
	organization = {Springer International Publishing AG},
	abstract = {

The majority of osteochondral (OC) lesions occur after injury or trauma of both bone and the overlying cartilage, and symptoms are pain and disability, leading to the risk of inducing osteoarthritis. These lesions are currently repaired by non-surgical and surgical methods or by advanced tissue engineering strategies, which require a proof of efficacy and safety for regulatory approval for human application. Pre-clinical studies using animal models have been the support of OC repair and regeneration with successful clinical outcomes. Small animal models as mice and rabbits, and large animal models as sheep, goats and horses, have been most commonly used according with the outcome goals. Small animals are rec- ommended as a proof of concept, while large animals are endorsed for truly translational research in order to get the regulatory approval for clinical use in humans. An up-to-date of the in vivo studies using different animal models and ongoing clinical trials for the repair and regeneration of OC lesions are presented. Commercialised products for OC repair are also indicated.\ 

}, keywords = {Osteochondral lesions, scaffolds}, issn = {1868-2006}, doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-44785-8_8}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-44785-8_8}, author = {Pina, S. and Ribeiro, V. P. and Oliveira, J. M. and Reis, R. L.}, editor = {Oliveira, J. M. and Reis, R. L.} }

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