@article {19163,
	title = {Evaluation of bone turnover markers and serum minerals variations for predicting fracture healing versus non-union processes in adult sheep as a model for orthopedic research},
	journal = {Injury-international Journal Of The Care Of The Injured},
	year = {2017},
	month = {2017-05-17 00:00:00},
	publisher = {Elsevier},
	abstract = {

Bone turnover markers (BTMs) have been considered as an auxiliary method of following the fracture
healing process and for early prediction of impaired bone healing. A better understanding of the potential
of BTMs in this application could allow for earlier interventions and improved patient care. The aim of
this study with a large animal experimental model was to assess the variation of bone formation markers

namely the total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and its bone-specific isoform (BALP), serum concentration
of intact osteocalcin (OC), N-terminal propeptide type III procollagen (PIIINP) and of bone resorption
markers {\textendash} namely tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and deoxypyridinoline crosslink (DPD)
during the
first stages of a normal fracture healing process and of a segmental critical size defect (CSD),
which progresses to a non-union process. Thirty healthy female sheep (Portuguese Churra-da-Terra-
Quente breed), approximately 4-years-old, were enrolled in this study. Jugular venous blood samples
were collected pre-operatively and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 post-operative weeks. The animals of the
CSD group showed significant lower serum levels of BALP, OC and significant higher serum PIIINP levels at
early stages of the fracture healing process, compared with animals that progressed in a normal fracture
healing process. Serum BALP, OC and PIIINP levels could be useful as non-invasive auxiliary tools with
other complementary methods for predicting the outcome of traumatic bone fractures.

}, keywords = {bone turnover markers, critical size defect, Delayed union, Fracture healing process, Non-union, sheep}, issn = {0020-1383}, doi = {10.1016/j.injury.2017.05.025}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020138317303509}, author = {Sousa, C. P. and Lopez-Pe{\~n}a, M. and G{\'u}zon, F. M. and De Abreuc, H. V. and Lu{\'\i}s, M. R. and Viegas, C. A. and Camassa, J. and De Azevedo, J. T. and Cabrita, A. S. and Reis, R. L. and Gomes, M. E. and Dias, I. R.} }

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