@article {18675,
	title = {Semipermeable Capsules Wrapping a Multifunctional and Self-regulated Co-culture Microenvironment for Osteogenic Differentiation},
	journal = {Scientific Reports},
	volume = {6},
	year = {2016},
	month = {2016-02-24 00:00:00},
	pages = {21883},
	publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
	abstract = {

A new concept of semipermeable reservoirs containing co-cultures of cells and supporting microparticles is presented, inspired by the multi-phenotypic cellular environment of bone. Based on the deconstruction of the {\textquotedblleft}stem cell niche{\textquotedblright}, the developed capsules are designed to drive a self-regulated osteogenesis. PLLA microparticles functionalized with collagen I, and a co-culture of adipose stem (ASCs) and endothelial (ECs) cells are immobilized in spherical liquified capsules. The capsules are coated with multilayers of poly(L-lysine), alginate, and chitosan nano-assembled through layer-by-layer. Capsules encapsulating ASCs alone or in a co-culture with ECs are cultured in endothelial medium with or without osteogenic differentiation factors. Results show that osteogenesis is enhanced by the co-encapsulation, which occurs even in the absence of differentiation factors. These findings are supported by an increased ALP activity and matrix mineralization, osteopontin detection, and the up regulation of\ BMP-2, RUNX2\ and\ BSP. The liquified co-capsules also act as a VEGF and BMP-2 cytokines release system. The proposed liquified capsules might be a valuable injectable self-regulated system for bone regeneration employing highly translational cell sources.

}, keywords = {Bioinspired materials, biomedical engineering, Biomineralization, growth factor signalling; stem-cell research}, issn = {2045-2322}, doi = {10.1038/srep21883}, url = {http://www.nature.com/articles/srep21883}, author = {Correia, C. R. and Pirraco, R. P. and Cerqueira, M. T. and Marques, A. P. and Reis, R. L. and Mano, J. F.} }

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