The present research aims to evaluate the possibility of creating new degradable, stiff and highly bioactive composites based on a biodegradable thermoplastic starch-based polymeric blend and a Bioglass® filler. Such combination should allow for the development of bioactive and degradable composites with a great potential for a range of temporary applications. A blend of starch with ethylene–vinyl alcohol copolymer (SEVA-C) was reinforced with a 45S5 Bioglass® powder presenting a granulometric distribution between 38 and 53 μm. Composites with 10 and 40 wt % of 45S5 Bioglass® were compounded by twin-screw extrusion (TSE) and subsequently injection molded under optimized conditions. The mechanical properties of the composites were evaluated by tensile testing, and their bioactivity assessed by immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF) for different periods of time. The biodegradability of these composites was also monitored after several immersion periods in an isotonic saline solution. The tensile tests results obtained indicated that SEVA-C/Bioglass® composites present a slightly higher stiffness and strength (a modulus of 3.8 GPa and UTS of 38.6 MPa) than previously developed SEVA-C/Hydroxylapatite (HA) composites. The bioactivity of SEVA-C composites becomes relevant for 45S5 amounts of only 10 wt %. This was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confirmed for immersion periods up to 30 days by both thin-film X-ray diffraction (TF-XRD) (where HA typical peaks are clearly observed) and induced coupled plasma emission (ICP) spectroscopy used to follow the elemental composition of the SBF as function of time. Additionally, it was observed that the composites are biodegradable being the results correlated with the correspondent materials composition.