Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics Research Group

Papers in Scientific Journals

Genetic detection and multilocus sequence typing of vanA-containing Enterococcus strains from mullets fish (Liza ramada)


Enterococci have emerged as important nosocomial and community-acquired pathogens in humans. The presence of vanA-enterococci was investigated in 103 fecal samples recovered from mullets fish (Liza ramada). All fecal samples were inoculated in Slanetz-Bartley agar plates supplemented with 4 mg/L of vancomycin for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) recovery and two isolates/sample were characterized. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested for 11 antibiotics by disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. VRE identification was performed by biochemical and molecular methods. Additionally, the mechanisms of resistance to glycopeptides (vanA, vanB, vanC1, vanC2, and vanD) and other antibiotics [erm(A), erm(B), tet(L), tet(M), aph(2'')-aac(6'), aph(3')-IIIa, ant(6'), vat(D), vat(E)] as well as the presence of enterococcal surface protein (esp) and hyl virulence factors were investigated. vanA-Enterococcus faecium isolates were recovered from 4 of 103 tested samples, and they showed glycopeptide and erythromycin resistances. Three of them were also ampicillin resistant, two showed resistance to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and kanamycin, and one showed resistance to gentamicin. The tet(M) and erm(B) genes were found in all tetracycline- and erythromycin-resistant strains, respectively. The aph(3')-III and aph(2'')-aac(6') genes were identified in the kanamycin- and gentamicin-resistant isolates, respectively. The IS1216 element was identified within vanX-vanY region of Tn1546 in two vanA isolates. The hyl and esp virulence genes were found in four and two isolates, respectively. vanA-strains were ascribed to sequence types ST280 (two isolates) and ST273 (two isolates), including both lineages into the clonal complex CC17. Mullets fish can excrete VRE in their feces and may be a reservoir for such resistant bacteria that can be transmitted to other animals including humans.

Microbial Drug Resistance
Antibiotic resistance, Enterococci, Mullets Fish
Open Access
Peer Reviewed
Year of Publication
Date Published
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