Due to their critical impact on public health, the detection of foodborne pathogens in food and water is an important issue for both, the food industry and control authorities. Fast and reliable analytical methods are needed in order to ensure the health of consumers, to easily determine whether a food product has been subjected to cross-contamination, and, simultaneously, to identify how and when this cross-contamination occurred in order to establish the proper corrective actions.
Recent developments in nanotechnology are greatly impacting the advancement of some analytical techniques, including foodborne pathogen detection. Herein, the advantages and the recent applications of nanoparticles (NPs) in foodborne pathogen detection are reviewed. The most frequently used NPs in this context (gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, and magnetic nanoparticles) are described, and their applicability for food analysis is emphasized. Finally, this chapter provides an overview of the use of micro and nanofluidics, combined with nanoparticles, for food pathogen analysis, and the integration of nanomaterial-based sensors for pathogen detection in food packaging systems.