Medical advances have increased life expectancy worldwide. At the same time, age-related pathologies have increased. Bone injuries are a burden among the aging population and are associated with significant socioeconomic costs. Thus, there is a need for new and efficient therapies. Advanced tissue engineering-based approaches have focused on the combination of cells, biologically active molecules, and a temporary three-dimensional porous scaffold to repair and regenerate damaged bone tissue. This chapter provides an overview of natural-based polymers and ceramics that are used as scaffolds, with a special focus on their properties, processing methods, and performance in bone tissue engineering applications.