Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes are high mortality diseases, which account for almost two thirds of all deaths worldwide. Their early detection and continuous evaluation is fundamental for an improved patient prognosis and reduced socioeconomic impact. Current biosensor technologies are typically based on the analysis of whole blood samples from patients for the detection of disease-specific biomarkers. However, these technologies display serious shortcomings, such as reduced sensitivity and dynamic range, limited in vivo applicability, and lack of continuous monitoring. There is the urgent need for new diagnostic and treatment follow-up tools, which allow for the early detection of the pathology as well as for the continuous monitoring of the physiological response to specific therapies. During the last years, a new generation of biosensor technologies with improved performance has emerged in the biomedical sector. The combination of advanced biomaterial methods, biochemical tools, and micro/nanotechnology approaches has resulted in the development of innovative three-dimensional (3D) biosensor platforms for advanced medical diagnosis. In this review, we report the most recent advances in the field of 3D biosensors for clinical applications, focusing on the diagnosis and monitoring of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes. We discuss about their clinical performance compared to standard biosensor technologies, their implantable capability, and their integration into microfluidic devices to develop clinically-relevant models. Overall, we anticipate that 3D biosensors will drive us toward a new paradigm in medical diagnosis, resulting in real-time in vivo biosensors capable to significantly improve patient prognosis.