The control of stem cell differentiation to obtain osteoblasts in vivo is still regarded as a challenge in stem-cell-based and bone-tissue engineering strategies. Biodegradable dexamethasone-loaded dendron-like nanoparticles (NPs) of carboxymethylchitosan/poly(amidoamine) dendrimer have been proposed as intracellular drug-delivery systems of bioactive molecules. In this study, combination of nanotechnology, stem-cell engineering and tissue engineering is proposed in pre-programming the fate of rat bone marrow stromal cells (RBMSCs) towards osteoblasts cells and development of new bone tissue, in vivo. This work demonstrated that the developed NPs were able to be taken up by RBMSCs, and exhibited a noncytotoxic behavior in vitro. The performance of the developed dendronlike NP system for the intracellular delivery of dexamethasone was investigated by seeding the engineered RBMSCs onto starch-polycaprolactone scaffolds ex vivo, and implanting subcutaneously in the back of Fischer 344/N rats (Syngeneic), in the absence of the typical osteogenic supplements. Favorable results were observed in vivo, thus suggesting that stem cell “tune-up” strategy can open up a new regenerative strategy for bone-tissue engineering.