Adipose tissue-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) are an abundant source of adult tissue stem cells
for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine therapeutic applications. Unlike other sources
of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs), ASCs can be retrieved from liposuction aspirates or
subcutaneous adipose tissue fragments in high numbers with minimal ethical considerations and can be
easily expanded in vitro. The ASC have the ability to differentiate in vitro along endodermal, ectodermal,
and mesodermal lineage pathways. Similar to other MSCs, ASCs display immunomodulatory and
immunosuppressive properties, making them suitable for both autologous and allogeneic approaches.
Furthermore, ASCs are genetically stable in short-term, but not long-term, culture. Due to these
characteristics, ASCs are poised for clinical trials treating a broad range of conditions. Despite their
tremendous promise, adipose tissue stem cell-based regenerative strategies will require additional
preclinical evidence to support advancement to clinical trials. This chapter summarizes current preclinical
and clinical data on the use of ASCs and discusses the future regenerative medical applications.