Osteogenic differentiation is a tightly regulated process dependent on the stimuli provided by the micro-environment. Silicon-substituted materials are known to have an influence on the osteogenic phenotype of undifferentiated and bone-derived cells. This study aims to investigate the bioactivity profile as well as the mechanical properties of a blend of starch and poly-caprolactone (SPCL) polymeric fiber mesh scaffolds functionalized with silanol (Si–OH) groups as key features for bone tissue engineering strategies. The scaffolds were made from SPCL by a wet spinning technique. A calcium silicate solution was used as a non-solvent to develop an in situ functionalization with Si–OH groups in a single-step approach. We also explored the relevance of silicon incorporated in SPCL–Si scaffolds to the in vitro osteogenic process of goat bone marrow stromal cells (gBMSCs) with and without osteogenic supplements in the culture medium. We hypothesized that SPCL–Si scaffolds could act as physical and chemical millieus to induce per se the osteogenic differentiation of gBMSCs. Results show that osteogenic differentiation of gBMSCs and the production of a mineralized extracellular matrix on bioactive SPCL–Si scaffolds occur for up to 2 weeks, even in the absence of osteogenic supplements in the culture medium. The omission of media supplements to induce osteogenic differentiation is a promising feature towards simplified and cost-effective cell culturing procedures of a potential bioengineered product, and concomitant translation into the clinical field. Thus, the present work demonstrates that SPCL–Si scaffolds and their intrinsic properties sustain gBMSC osteogenic features in vitro, even in the absence of osteogenic supplements to the culture medium, and show great potential for bone regeneration strategies.