Human adult articular cartilage is a unique avascular tissue which displays the ability to resist to repetitive
compressive stress. However, this connective tissue exhibits slight capacity for intrinsic restoration and,
then even injuries or lesions can lead to progressive damage and osteoarthritic joint deterioration.
Therefore, the field of cartilage repair continues to expand, bridging the gap between palliative care and
chondral defects reconstruction. Tissue engineering strategy, centered on three actors: cells, proteins and
scaffolds, received a lot of attention in the aim to develop an articular cartilage regeneration process that
will be efficient, simple, and based on global market, costeffective.
The current state of cartilage tissue engineering with respect to different cellsources, growth factors and biomaterial scaffolds, as well as the strategies employed in the restoration and repair of damaged articular cartilage will be the focus of this book chapter.