Electrospinning, an electrostatic fiber fabrication technique, has attracted significant interest in recent years due to its versatility and ability to produce highly tunable nanofibrous meshes. These nanofibrous meshes have been investigated as promising tissue engineering scaffolds since they mimic the scale and morphology of the native extracellular matrix. The sub-micron diameter of fibers produced by this process presents various advantages like the high surface area to volume ratio, tunable porosity, and the ability to manipulate the nanofiber composition in order to get desired properties and functionality. Electrospun fibers can be oriented or arranged randomly, giving control over both mechanical properties and the biological response to the fibrous scaffold. Moreover, bioactive molecules can be integrated with the electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds in order to improve the cellular response. This chapter presents an overview of the developments on electrospun polymer nanofibers including processing, structure, and their applications in the field of osteochondral tissue engineering.