The complex heterogeneous cellular environment found in tendon-to-bone interface makes this structure a challenge for interface tissue engineering. Orthopedic surgeons still face some problems associated with the formation of fibrotic tissue or re-tear occurring after surgical re-attachment of tendons to the bony insertion or the application of grafts. Unfortunately, an understanding of the cellular component of enthesis lags far behind of other well-known musculoskeletal interfaces, which blocks the development of new treatment options for the healing and regeneration of this multifaceted junction. In this chapter, the main characteristics of tendon and bone cell populations are introduced, followed by a brief description of the interfacial cellular niche, highlighting molecular mechanisms governing tendon-to-bone attachment and mineralization. Finally, we describe and critically assess some challenges faced concerning the use of cell-based strategies in tendon-to-bone healing and regeneration.