Articular cartilage is an avascular tissue characterized by a dense and specific extracellular matrix (ECM). Fibronectin (FN) is a key constituent of the pericellular ECM, assembled into a fibrillar matrix through a cell-mediated process, being implicated in chondrogenic events. In this study, we evaluate the chondrogenic potential of FN bound to the surface of an electrospun nanofibrous mesh (NFM). For that, an anti-FN antibody was immobilized at the surface of NFMs, rendering them capable of selectively binding endogenous FN (eFN) from blood plasma. The chondrogenic potential of bound eFN was further assessed by culturing human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) for 28 days, in a basal growth medium. The biological results indicate that NFMs functionalized with eFN were able to successfully induce the chondrogenesis of hBM-MSCs, as demonstrated by the high expression of SOX9, Aggrecan, and Collagen type II. Therefore, biofunctionalized nanofibrous substrates comprising eFN significantly enhance the efficacy of a cartilage tissue-engineering strategy.